第30課

窓が開けてあります。

This lesson carries on with ways to describe a state that has resulted from an action, but this time with emphasis on an action that was deliberately done to something, i.e. a transitive verb.

Structures

  • Vteある

    Syntax:          -te form compound verb. Uses intransitive verbs. Usage:           Shows a state that results from a deliberate action. Explanation: While あるby itself shows that something exists, when it is used after the -te form of a transitive verb it shows what somebody did to it to get it into the state it is in now.

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  • 窓が開けてあります。

    Syntax:          -te form compound verb. Uses intransitive verbs. Usage:           Shows a state that results from a deliberate action. Even though the verb is transitive, が not を is used because the particle agrees with the final ある, not the -te form before it. Example: まどが開けてあります。 The window has been opened  

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  • 壁に絵がつけてある

    Explanation: We already know that  N(location)にNがある means “there is [a] N [on/in…] N(location).” Using the -te form of a transitive verb shows what somebody did to the thing to get it there. Examples: 机(つくえ)の上にメモが置(お)いてあります。 A memo has been put on the desk. カレンダーに今月の予定が書いてあります。 This month’s schedule has been written on the calendar

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  • 絵は壁に掛けてある

    Explanation: We’ve seen how が, not を is used with the -てある form. When we are talking about what has been done to something that is the topic of the conversation, がchanges to は. Example:       メモはどこですか。 [メモは]机の上に置いてあります 今月の予定はカレンダーに書いてあります。

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  • ワインはもう買ってある

    Preparation Explanation: Because –teある shows that a deliberate act has taken place, it is often used to show some kind of preparation has taken place, and is often used with もう. Examples: 誕生日のプレゼントはもう買ってあります。 I’ve already bought her birthday present. ホテルはもう予約してあります。 I’ve already booked the hotel. Categories Tags

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  • te form + おく

    Vteおく Syntax:          -te form compound verb. Uses transitive verbs Usage:           Used when something is done deliberately in preparation for the future Explanation: While おくby itself means “to put”, when it is used in a -te form compound, it means to “put an action onto the passage of time”, to bring about a state that will

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  • 会議の前にしておきます。

    I’ll do that before the meeting. Explanation: Complete a necessary action by a given time Example: 旅行の前に切符を買っておきま。 I’ll buy a ticked before I go travelling

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  • そこに置いておいて下し

    Put that over there please Explanation: The time doesn’t need to be mentioned, for example if it is some indeterminate point in the future. Example: ゴミ箱に捨てておいてください。 Please put it in the bin (so it can be thrown away later).

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  • そのままにしておきます

    I’ll leave it as it is. Explanation: If the state doesn’t need to be changed, you can still use Vte おく. Note that in this construction, that action doesn’t actually have to be performed, rather, its resultant state has to be preserved. Example: 机の上に出しておいてください。 Please leave them out on the table. Explanation: そのままにするis often used

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  • まだVteいる

    Syntax:          Adverb Usage:           Used to show that a state is still continuing. Example: 雨がまだ降っています。 It’s still raining

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Kanji

  • kanji 30

    漢字 音 訓 学年 Edexcel 引 イン ひ-く、ひ-ける 2 A level 定 テイ、ジョウ さだ-める、さだ-まる、さだ-か 3 A level 箱   はこ 3   予 ヨ   3 A level 置 チ、お-く お-く 4 A level 約 ヤク   4   A level 冷 レイ つめ-たい、ひ-える、ひ-や、ひ-やす、ひ-やかす、さ-める、さ-ます 4   復 フク   5 A level 机 キ、 つくえ …