第19課

This lesson expands on the use of こと to say you have done something, how to use たり to link verbs together, and how to use the verb なる, to become.

Morphology

  • The volitional verb form

    So far, with the -te, -nai, plain and -ta forms, we have learned that verbs come in two main inflection types: ru verbs, where the verb stem remains unchanged when different endings are attached, and -u verbs where the last letter of the verb stem can change depending on the ending that is attached. Now …

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  • The past verb form

    So far, with the -te, -nai and plain forms, we have learned that verbs come in two main inflection types: ru verbs, where the verb stem remains unchanged when different endings are attached, and -u verbs where the last letter of the verb stem can change depending on the ending that is attached. Now let’s …

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  • The -te verb form

    So far, we have learned that verbs end with ます. Before we look at how to make -te forms, we could go a bit further by saying that in Romaji, the ますform of all verbs ends in either emasu or imasu. Verbs ending in –emasu たべます、はじめます、あけます Verbs ending in –imasu みます、おわります、かきます、あそびます With this in mind, …

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  • The negative verb form

    So far, with the te form, we have learned that here are two main patterns for inflecting verbs: a simple one, where you remove the ます and replace it with て, and a complicated one, where you also have to change the letter that comes before ます. Now let’s look at the –nai form (1) …

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  • The -masu verb form

    The –masu form of Japanese verbs, in which all verbs end with ます, is the first form that you need to learn. We could go into more detail by saying that in Romaji, the -masu form of all verbs ends in either -emasu or –imasu. Verbs ending in –emasu たべます、はじめます、あけます Verbs ending in –imasu みます、おわります、かきます、あそびます …

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Structures

  • どちらですか。

    Whereas どこ means “where”, どちら means “which direction”. It also more polite to use どちら。  お手洗いはどちらですか。Which way is the toilet? 学校はどちらですか。Which school do you go to?

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  • どこの電話ですか。

    The structure N1[location] の N2 can be used to show that N2 was made in or by N1. これはどこの電話ですか。Where is this phone from?韓国のです。It’s from Korea. 

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  • こ・そ・あ・ど

    これ This それ That (yours) あれ That (theirs) どれ Which? このN This N そのN That N (your N) あのN That N (their N) どのN Which N? ここ Here そこ There あそこ Over there どこ Where こちら This direction そちら That direction (to you) あちら That way over there どちら Which direction?

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  • 今一時十五分です。

    To express the time, use a number constructed with 時, the counter for hours, followed by a number constructed with 分, the counter for minutes. 十時十分です。It’s ten past ten. The question word for time is made by adding the counter 時 to the question prefix 何. You can make it clearer that you’re asking for …

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  • わかりますか。

    These may be the most useful three phrases for somebody who is just beginning to learn Japanese. わかりますか。Do you understand? いいえ、わかりません。I don’t understand はい、わかりました。Yes, I understand Note that in わかりました, the past tense is used. This usage is unlike English, and means, “Yes, I have understood.”

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Usage

  • 東京に着いたら電話します。

    When it is certain that the predicate that takes the -たら form will happen, then it is also certain that the rest of the sentence will happen. It is not a matter of if, but when.

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  • 銀行へ来るとき、カードを持って来てください。

    とき can be used to say when you want somebody to do something

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  • 銀行へ行くとき、カードを持っていきます。

    とき can be used to say a general truth about when a certain action happens. This may be an action that is repeated any number of times.

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  • 子どものとき、野球が大好きでした。

    When とき comes before a past-tense sentence. It describes when that event happened.

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  • このボタンを押すと、コーヒーが出てきます。

    The particle と can be used to show that when one event happens, another follows after as a consequence.

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  • 時間がったら行きます。

    When the outcome of the predicate that takes the -たら form is uncertain, then whether the rest of the sentence will happen is also uncertain. This is equivalent to if in English

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  • 海に行ったら、天気が良くなりました。

    When the main sentence is in the past, then both halves of the sentence definitely happened, so again, it is not a matter of if, but when.

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  • みんなが分かるようにゆっくり話してください

    ーようにー can be used show when something is done to achieve an aim.

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  • 甘いものを食べないようにします。

    ーようにする can be used show effort is made to do or not do something

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  • 自転車ができるようになった!

    ーようになる can be used show that a change to a certain state is reached.

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Kanji

  • Kanji 35

    漢字 音 訓 English 学年 村 ソン むら Village 1 活 カツ Activity 2 向 コウ む-く、む-ける、む-かう、む-こう Face towards 3 拾 シュウ ジュウ、ひろ-う Pick up 3 島 トウ しま Island 3 葉 ヨウ は leaf 3 緑 リョク、(ロク) みどり Green 3 変 ヘン か-わる、か-える Change 4 捨 シャ す-てる Throw out 6 珍 チン めずら-しい …

  • kanji 30

    漢字 音 訓 学年 Edexcel 引 イン ひ-く、ひ-ける 2 A level 定 テイ、ジョウ さだ-める、さだ-まる、さだ-か 3 A level 箱   はこ 3   予 ヨ   3 A level 置 チ、お-く お-く 4 A level 約 ヤク   4   A level 冷 レイ つめ-たい、ひ-える、ひ-や、ひ-やす、ひ-やかす、さ-める、さ-ます 4   復 フク   5 A level 机 キ、 つくえ …

  • Kanji 31

    漢字 音 訓 学年 Edexcel 空 クウ そら、あ-く、あ-ける、から 1 Higher 文 ブン、モン ふみ 1 Higher 園 エン その 2 Higher 業 ギョウ、ゴウ わざ 3 A level 港 コウ みなと 3 式 シキ 3 Higher 受 ジュ う-ける、う-かる 3 A level 機 キ はた 4 A level 残 ザン のこ-る、のこ-す 4 A level 卒 ソツ 4 …