第34課

This lesson introduces several new ways to describe an action in terms of another action, ie. being the same as another action, occurring after another action, occurring with or without the other action, and occurring instead of the other action.

Structures

  • Clause with Verb1 (te form) + Verb2

    This is a very common structure in Japanese: The first clause ends in a -te form verb, which is then followed by a second verb. The important thing to note here is that the verbs are closely linked: The second verb doesn’t take any arguments, it just adds meaning to the first verb. Examples You …

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  • Clause with Verb1 (te form) + Clause with Verb2

    In this structure the first clause ends in a -te form verb, which is then followed by a second clause. The important thing to note here is that the verbs not closely linked: The second verb can take its own arguments, and both clauses, even though linked, have their own meaning Examples こちら右へ曲がって、次の信号でまっすぐ行って、すぐ郵便局になります。Turn right here, …

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Usage

  • 仕事をしないで、休みを取る。

    The ないで form can be used to show that you are not doing something, you are something else instead.

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  • しょうゆをつけて食べます

    The -te form can be used to make a compound verb showing that both verbs happen together.

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  • 食べた後で…

    When あと(後)is modified by a past-tense verb, it becomes a time expression that shows what happens after the action of the verb is completed.

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  • 私が言うとおりに…

    The special noun とおり represents something that is exactly how it is described.

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Kanji

  • Kanji 34

    漢字 音 訓 English 学年 細 サイ ほそ-い、ほそ-る、こま-か、こま-かい Fine 2 番 バン nth 2 苦 ク くる-しい、くる-しむ、くる-しめる、にが-い、にが-る Harsh 3 幸 コウ さいわ-い、さち、しあわ-せ Happy 3 号 ゴウ Number 3 塩 エン しお Salt 4 質 シツ、シチ Material, quality 5 甘 カン あま-い、あま-える、あま-やかす Sweet S 換 カン か-える、か-わる Exchange S 磨 マ みが-く Polish S 踊 ヨウ …