This lesson introduces several new ways to describe an action in terms of another action, ie. being the same as another action, occurring after another action, occurring with or without the other action, and occurring instead of the other action.
Clause with Verb1 (te form) + Verb2
This is a very common structure in Japanese: The first clause ends in a -te form verb, which is then followed by a second verb. The important thing to note here is that the verbs are closely linked: The second verb doesn’t take any arguments, it just adds meaning to the first verb. Examples You …
The ないで form can be used to show that you are not doing something, you are something else instead.
The -te form can be used to make a compound verb showing that both verbs happen together.
When あと（後）is modified by a past-tense verb, it becomes a time expression that shows what happens after the action of the verb is completed.
The special noun とおり represents something that is exactly how it is described.
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