While in the the last lesson we learned how to give advice, this lesson introduces ways to make a direct instruction using しろ (”Do it”), the imperative form, and するな (“Don’t do it”) the prohibitive form.
It also shows more ways to convey messages using -と言う,
The imperative verb form
The imperative form of Japanese of verbs is constructed differently depending on whether the verb is a -ru, -u or irregular verb -ru verbs For -ru verbs, the stem remains unchanged. For example, to make the imperative form of 食べる for example, simply use the same stem as in the other forms, followed by the …
Imperative form – usage When used by itself as a sentence ending the imperative form can be very direct and can seem very rude. However it can be used by itself in some situations:
Similarly to the way that ~と書く is used to describe how text is written, ～と読む can be used to describe how something is read.
Just as ~言う is used to show indirect speech, ~と書く is used to describe written text. ～と書いてあります is used to show that a certain text something is written somewhere. あそこに「とまれ」と書いてあります。 It says “stop” over there.
～という意味 is used to show what something means.
Used to convey what somebody has said
This structure is used to politely ask somebody to convey a message.
漢字 音 訓 English 学年 角 カク かど、つの Horn 2 交 コウ まじ-わる、まじ-える、ま-じる、ま-ざる、ま-ぜる、か-う、か-わす Mix 2 荷 カ に Luggage 3 曲 キョク ま-がる、ま-げる Turn 3 投 トウ な-げる Throw 3 以 イ 4 席 セキ Seat 4 伝 デン つた-わる、つた-える、つた-う Tell 4 付 フ つ-ける、つ-く Put (on) 4 吸 キュウ 、す-う Suck, smoke 6 触 …