The passive verb form

The imperative form of Japanese of verbs is constructed differently depending on whether the verb is a -ru, -u or irregular verb.

-ru verbs

For -ru verbs, the stem remains unchanged. For example, to make the passive form of 食べる, simply use the same stem as in the other forms, followed by the verb ending られる.

食べ・る → 食べ・られる

-u verbs

With -u verbs, the -あ stem (ない stem) is used.

書く → 書か…

As we saw with the -nai ending, in verbs ending in う itself, う changes to わ . e.g:

買う → 買わ…

Onto this stem, add the verb ending れる.



In a similar way as with the conditional form, it gets very simple if a verb is rendered in Romaji. For nearly all verbs, just change the final -u to –areru.

taberu → taberareru
kaku → kakareru
nomu → nomareru

However, be careful of verbs ending in u after a vowel.

iu → iwareru
kau → kawareru

Irregular verbs

The imperative form of する is される.
The imperative form of 来る is 来られる(こられる).
行くfollows the same rule as for -u verbs, with an imperative form 行かれる.