Syntax:          -te form compound verb. Uses intransitive verbs.

Usage:           Shows a state that results from a deliberate action.

Explanation: While あるby itself shows that something exists, when it is used after the -te form of a transitive verb it shows what somebody did to it to get it into the state it is in now. This is in contrast to いる, which has a similar structure, but is used with intransitive verbs and shows what happened, rather than what was done.


The window has been opened

Note that even though the verb is transitive, が not を is used because the particle agrees with the final ある, not the -te form before it.


Explanation: We’ve seen how が, not を is used with the -てある form. When we are talking about what has been done to something that is the topic of the conversation, がchanges to は.


  • メモはどこですか。


  • 今月の予定はカレンダーに書いてあります。