The volitional verb form

So far, with the -te, -nai, plain and -ta forms, we have learned that verbs come in two main inflection types: ru verbs, where the verb stem remains unchanged when different endings are attached, and -u verbs where the last letter of the verb stem can change depending on the ending that is attached.

Now let’s look at the volitional form, used in words such as  行こう (“let’s go”).

-ru verbs

With -ru verbs, simply add -よう to the stem.

                食べる

                たべ・る ⇒ たべ・よう

Here’s a list of some common -ru verbs.

ます formEnglishてformないformPlain formたformおうform
たべますEatたべてたべないたべるたべてたべよう
あけますOpenあけてあけないあけるあけてあけよう
おりますGet down/offおりておりないおりるおりておりよう
おちますFallおちておちないおちるおちておちよう
あびますWashあびてあびないあびるあびてあびよう

-u verbs

With -u verbs, you need to make a new stem, the -おう stem. This is done by  changing the last syllable of the plain form from an “u” sound to and “o” sound, so for example, stems ending in くnow end in こ. Then add う.

                書く

かく → かこ + う ⇒ かこう

In romaji, it’s simpler. Just change the final “-u” to “-oo”

Here is a table of the different ways to make the -oo forms of -u verbs.

Letter before ますます formEnglishてformないformPlain formたformおうform
かきますWriteかいてかかないかくかいたかこう
およぎますSwimおよいでおよがないおよぐおよいだおよごう
はなしますSpeakはなしてはなさないはなさないはなしたはなそう
まちますWaitまってまたないまつまったまとう
しにますDieしんでしなないしぬしんだしのう
あそびますPlayあそんであそばないあそぶあそんだあそぼう
よみますReadよんでよまないよむよんだよもう
きりますCutきってきらないきるきったきろう


Irregular verbs

ます formEnglishてformないformPlain formたformおうform
いきますGoいっていかないいくいったいこう
きますComeきてこないくるきたこよう
しますDoしてしないするしたしよう

初級2

Syokyu 2 carries on from shokyu 1 in the same format: There are 25 units, (26 to 50), and all of the 5 main books have a lesson for each unit

  1. 本冊(ほんさつ)

Honsatsu introduces one or several new structures in each lesson. Each lesson has 5 parts:

  1. 文型(ぶんけい)              Sentence patterns
  2. 例文(れいぶん)              Example sentences
  3. 会話(かいわ)              Conversation (with video and audio)
  4. 練習(れんしゅう)            Practice
    1. Outlines basic grammatical structures
    2. Patterns
    3. Conversation
  5. 問題(もんだい)              Questions
  1. 聴解(ちょうかい)タスク                     Chokai tasuku

Each Chokai lesson provides listening comprehension exercises to reinforce understanding of the structures introduced in the honsatsu lesson for that unit

  1. ()めるトピック             Yomeru topikku

Each Yomeru topikku lesson provides reading comprehension exercises to reinforce understanding of the structures introduced in the honsatsu lesson for that unit

  1. Kanji

This book follows on from the shokyu 1 kanji book. To recap: Shokyu 1 introduces 220 kanji which are in terms of JLPT: 202 of the 250 kanji required for Level 3, and 18 of the 750 required for level 2.

  1. Kaite oboeru

Vteある

Syntax:          -te form compound verb. Uses intransitive verbs.

Usage:           Shows a state that results from a deliberate action.

Explanation: While あるby itself shows that something exists, when it is used after the -te form of a transitive verb it shows what somebody did to it to get it into the state it is in now. This is in contrast to いる, which has a similar structure, but is used with intransitive verbs and shows what happened, rather than what was done.

Example:

まどが開けてあります。
The window has been opened

Note that even though the verb is transitive, が not を is used because the particle agrees with the final ある, not the -te form before it.

窓が開けてあります。

Syntax:          -te form compound verb. Uses intransitive verbs.

Usage:           Shows a state that results from a deliberate action.

Even though the verb is transitive, が not を is used because the particle agrees with the final ある, not the -te form before it.

Example:

  • まどが開けてあります。

The window has been opened  

絵は壁に掛けてある

Explanation: We’ve seen how が, not を is used with the -てある form. When we are talking about what has been done to something that is the topic of the conversation, がchanges to は.

Example:      

  • メモはどこですか。

[メモは]机の上に置いてあります

  • 今月の予定はカレンダーに書いてあります。

第28課・文型

Main language structures

ViながらV

Structure:     [Verb (masu stem)] + ながら            While [verb]

Syntax:          Adverbial phrase

Semantic:     Time phrases: simultaneous

Vteいる

Structure:     [verb (te form)] + いる

Syntax:          Compound verb

Semantic:     Habitual use

Vuし

Structure:     [Verb (plain form)] + し

Syntax:          Conjunction

Semantic:     Similar viewpoints: linking

Similar viewpoints: linking, Cause and effect

それに

Structure:     [sentence]。それに、[sentence]

Syntax:          Conjunctive adverb

Semantic:     Similar viewpoints: reinforcing

それで

Structure:     [sentence]。それに、[sentence]

Syntax:          Conjunctive adverb

Semantic:     Cause and effect: indirect

よく喫茶店に来るんですか。

Structure:     [N (place)] に [V (motion]

Syntax:          Particle (same as へ)

Semantic:     Destination (same as へ)

第29課・文型

Structure excerpts

Structure:     [Verb (-te form)] いる

Syntax:          -te compound verb ending

Meaning:      State resulting from the action of the verb

窓が割れています。

Structure:     Nが [verb (-te form)] いる

Syntax:          N ga [clause]

Meaning:      expressing  the result of an intransitive verb

このコップは割れています。

Structure:     Nは [verb (-te form)] + いる

Syntax:          は replacing が

Meaning:      When the subject is also the topic

てしまう

Structure:     [Verb (-te form)] しまう

Syntax:          -te compound verb ending

Meaning:      Completion of an action

てしまう

Structure:     [Verb (-te form)] しまう

Syntax:          -te compound verb ending

Meaning:      To describe a regretful situation.

かばんがありました

Structure:     N が あった。

Syntax:          V-ta

Meaning:      To show something has been found, not that it existed in the past.

どこかで・どこかに

Structure:     どこかで・どこかに

Syntax:          Special pronoun + で orに, omission of particle

Explanation: When adding を or  へ to どこ, the particle can be omitted, but with で andに, the particle has to be included.

第31課 – Intention

Overview

Now that we’ve learned some ways to describe the state that something in, we need to know how to talk about what we intend to do about it. This lesson introduces several ways to show what your intention is, how suggest to what you are going to, are thinking of, or are planning to do in the future.

Morphology

  • The volitional verb form

    So far, with the -te, -nai, plain and -ta forms, we have learned that verbs come in two main inflection types: ru verbs, where the verb stem remains unchanged when different endings are attached, and -u verbs where the last letter of the verb stem can change depending on the ending that is attached. Now …

Structures

  • ちょっと休もう。

    The volitional form is used in the same way as the -ましょう form, but in casual and familiar speech.

    Continue reading

  • 行こうと思っています。

    The volitional form with -と思う is used to show what the speaker is thinking of doing.

    Continue reading

  • 止めるつもりです

    The special noun つもり is used to show the speaker’s intention.

    Continue reading

  • まだ開いていません

    The negative form of the -ている form can be used to show that something has not happened

    Continue reading

  • 21日に帰ってくるよていです。

    The special noun 予定(よてい)is used to tell somebody about a schedule.

    Continue reading

  • そ~/こ~

    The previous topic そ~ is often used to represent something that has just been talked about. In writing, こ~ can be used instead, to describe something as if it really exists.

    Continue reading

Kanji

  • Kanji 31

    漢字 音 訓 学年 Edexcel 空 クウ そら、あ-く、あ-ける、から 1 Higher 文 ブン、モン ふみ 1 Higher 園 エン その 2 Higher 業 ギョウ、ゴウ わざ 3 A level 港 コウ みなと 3 式 シキ 3 Higher 受 ジュ う-ける、う-かる 3 A level 機 キ はた 4 A level 残 ザン のこ-る、のこ-す 4 A level 卒 ソツ 4 …